Clinical Reproductive Anatomy – Cervix – 3D Anatomy Tutorial

Clinical Reproductive Anatomy – Cervix – 3D Anatomy Tutorial

So next I’d like to move onto the cervix,
so what we’re looking at here, is the cervix bulging into the end of the vagina. So the
portion of the cervix projecting into the vagina is known as the ectocervix, and I’ve
outlined this in blue. And then you’ve got the bit which lines the canal, which lies
inside the cervix. So this is the endocervical canal. So you’ve got the ectocervix and the
endocervix. So the endocervix is lined with columnar epithelium, whereas the ectocervix,
which is continuous with the vagina, is lined with squamous epithelium. So where the columnar
epithelium meets the squamous epithelium, is called the squamocolumnar junction. So
during pregnancy and during puberty, you get eversion of the cervix, so you get the pushing
out of these columnar cells, which line the endocervix and as a result they’re then exposed
to the acidic environment of the vagina. So what happens when the columnar epithelium
are exposed to this acidic environment, is that you get metaplasia, which is a changing
of the cell type from columnar to squamous epithelium. And this area of change from columnar
to squamous is called the transformation zone, and this zone is important because at this
area, the cervix is susceptible to neoplastic change and ultimately, to possibility of cervical
carcinoma, so a common benign condition to be aware of is a cervical ectropion, which
is also called a cervical erosion, so like I just mentioned, during puberty and during
pregnancy, the cervix protrudes out and you get exposure of the columnar cells to the
vagina. So on speculum examination, you can see the ectropion, or erosion, around the
cervical os, and it’s visible as a sort of reddish area, so this is a normal finding
in younger women, pregnant women, and those women who are use the pill. And it often presents
with post-coital bleeding, so that’s bleeding after intercourse. So two other important
conditions to talk about are the premalignant, preinvasive stage of cervical cancer, which
is called “cervical intraepithelial neoplasia”, and the other is malignant carcinoma of the
cervix. So on the left here I’ve draw a very quick diagram of a layer of epithelial cells,
sitting upon the basement membrane. So invasive cancer is cancer that has spread through the
basement membrane. So cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, or CIN, is this preinvasive stage
of cervical cancer, so it hasn’t yet gone through the basement membrane. So in this
premalignant condition, you’ve got atypical cells, you’ve got dysplastic cells and the
way that it’s detected is often with a smear test. So a smear test is a cytological test,
where cells are sampled from this transformation zone of the cervix, which is the most common
origin, or location for cells to undergo this dysplastic change. So it’s important to note
that the smear is a cytological test, it detects cellular changes rather than histological
changes, but the degree of dyskaryosis, which is the degree of cellular change, actually
reflects the severity of the CIN, the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. And these cellular
changes are changes in the nuclear size and also changes in the rate of mitotic division.
So essentially, it’s a histological diagnosis, but the cellular changes do correspond to
what is actually seen on histology. So there are three grades of CIN, so in grade 1, you’ve
got mild dysplasia, and this affects the lower third of the epithelium. In CIN 2, you’ve
got moderate dysplasia, which affects the lower two thirds, of the epithelium, and in
CIN 3, you’ve got full thickness involvement of the epithelium. So this is called carcinoma
in situ. So at this stage, if the abnormal cells invade through the basement membrane,
you have cervical cancer. So in cervical carcinoma, it most often occurs near the external os,
at the transformation zone, and one of the most common causes is the human papillomavirus
– HPV, and 90 percent of the time, cervical carcinoma is of the squamous type, so it’s
squamous cell carcinoma, or SCC. And the second most common type is adenocarcinoma, which
involves cells of glandular origin. So those are some important conditions to be aware
of in relation to the cervix.

13 thoughts on “Clinical Reproductive Anatomy – Cervix – 3D Anatomy Tutorial

  • no men come out of the same hole they pee out of, sooo, there is a big difference. I am trying to find out about the cervix when you have had at least five children and maybe going through the "change of life", one gynecologist said it could sag to appear as a tampon, is this true?

  • I have spent months researching into anatomy and discovered an awesome resource at Anatomy Blueprint Pro (check it out on google)

  • Whenever I see one of your vids to study my anatomy, I know I'm going to understand it. Keep up the good work

  • What you aren't being told: The "smear test" is actually a "scrape test." It's 53% accurate. The "scrape" removes the single layer of epithelial we have which protect our cervix from virus etc. If you have HPV, that scrape allows the virus to become embedded into the more nutritious basement cells which then allow it to eventually turn into cancer. No doctor can argue with me here.
    HPV can be more accurately detected with the Trovagene urine based HPV test which I've used. It's 93% accurate but was d/c due to lack of interest. Did you know you had a choice?
    Elsewhere, women can use the Delphi Screener. This is also done at home, like the Trovagene test is/was. Look it up.
    Instead here, we have these scrapes and pokes.
    Go check out the metal wired instruments used to "sample" tissues inside the endocervical canal….or the cheese grater device used to "curette" or scrape out tissues deep up inside the endocervical canal. This, again, is how HPV gets to deeply invasive and dangerous.
    Did you know that a DC named Leroy Nicholas in Chicago can cure HPV w/o all the burning and cutting that usual gene's use?
    As you watch this…know this too.
    How many young girls were/are forced to have paps? And what do we see? A very young woman will automatically show up as CIN or worse on pap as the cells are "different."
    Different means that the computer which reads all the slides cannot determine what the hell it's looking at. Yes, a computer with an algorhythm is used to score your slides. When it cannot score them, the default score is CC or CIN3. The false positives and false negatives are why this test is bullshit. But hey, w/o that pap the docs wouldn't have a good reason to play with our anterior fornix, our g-spots, our rectums/vaginas (rectovaginal exam) at the same time.
    They could not say "we must rule-out your ovulation pain as it could possibly be life threatening." Notice how good looking women are receiving exams that go on so long dinner is served afterward? While older women and the fat or uglies are in and out in 15 seconds? Yes this is true. And, fact here again. Only in skinny young girls w/o children can the ovaries be felt up. Otherwise the doc is looking for you to feel pain etc.
    And the HSG where you get iodine injected into your cervix or water/air? Cramps like hell on earth. Ever pour salt on a snail? That's what the iodine solution does to your uterus. A chemical burn spasm. The water/air? Like having a period in reverse all in a few seconds. Pain few docs ever imagine let alone feel. Endometrial biopsy is the worst of all…
    Go look at videos here and learn.
    Now, a pregnancy? Again, they must pap you before, and after claiming it's standards of care. It's defensive medicine.
    You'll come up abnormal. Why, if they already know your cells will be abnormal, do they insist on this stupidity? And the diagnosis? If they already know you'll be abnormal, how can they claim you're dying of CC?
    All BS and lies.

  • AT 4 minutes. They say the pap is not a histological test but cytological. And then they say it's histological after all. They say the tests are so important to measure cellular division. What they don't say is that it takes up to 10 yrs for these cells to become invasive. That every woman is exposed to HPV and most fight it off over a 2 year period of time.
    Never are men tested. If you're infected, why isn't HE tested too? What about your mouths? And reinfection?
    Of course no answers given.
    So then too, look at how the instruments are stored. Since this video is to tech to convince of morons of it's life saving importance (hey tune in here we know what's best for you—and we use big words to hypnotize you into saying YES to all the small procedures we want to do—like cut, fry, etc with pain which is never mentioned here because you should be happy to have lots of pain because you COULD DIE TOMORROW FROM HPV YOU DUMB BITCH SO BE HAPPY I'M HERE TO FEEL YOU UP AND DO WHAT I TELL YOU I WANT TO DO TO YOU!!. Oh have a wonderful day too.
    How many times have you seen the instruments just sitting out in the open? Non-sterile. Right there for anybody to play with? How about the table? What was oozing where your ass is right now? The toilet seat where they told you to urinate?
    If anybody has HPV and does not abide by near total sterile bathroom habits, then simply to going there, turning the handle, opening the door or touching the pen, or allowing them to use those non-sterile instruments on you—
    You're opening yourself to infection. That simple.
    A gyn office should be wiped clean with 90% alcohol each time a patient comes (I mean arrives) and goes.
    Would you use a wooden spatula to clean an infected wound? NO
    Then why is this ok to use on your cervix?
    Pap is 53% accurate. The alternatives are 93% accurate. Given the full informed consent here; which do you choose?
    Demand a blood HPV test. No HPV—No CC. That simple. Until you get very old. Don't fall for the big words.
    Hold your ground like I did. Then tell docs what you think of the miserable pap.

  • 4:45 of video. Ask yourself: How much tissue is scraped away during pap? If you have only a single epithelial layer of cells to defend your cervix…and that's scraped away…then what's left?
    And when HPV is given "cuts" to go deeper into your cervix thanks to pap and an aggressive clinician, then here you go…CIN.
    Now again. Look at the diagram. If what is said here is true (before I was told CIN was how much of cervix surface was involved…hmmm the change)…
    Anyhoo… IF docs scrape away all that tissue? What is left? Is this why it hurts? Why we bleed?
    And also now you know why they cause such a painful mess of your cervix and especially your endocervical canal during colposcopy. Why it hurts so much more. Why they deny and lie so much more too.
    All preventable.
    What Dr Nicholas does for HPV issues is to introduce a chemical that causes mild surface destruction. You feel a sting as you do when the vinegar solution is applied during pap/colposcopy. This kills all the cells on the surface. He uses an herbal concentration plus a concentration of natural anticancer chemicals found in foods. He has success w/o all the destruction.
    You don't have to slash & burn. That's the point.
    Period. So now and then a real live farting pathologist will "oversample" or re-read the slides. Sometimes disease is found this way–but rarely so.

    And again, adenocarcinomas are NOT diagnosed this way. That's why it's (this type) has usually spread so much by diagnosis. You must watch your body for other, early symptoms. And watch your past immediate relatives plus environmental exposures.

    Just like I knew. Nothing relating what is wrong with pap is discussed. Notice how after adenocarcinomas the video stops?!

    Gotta get in that last fear mongering tactic…just in case the rest of the BS failed to impress you into submitting to the BS.

    Follow the "instructional" video>>>you're scared to death and on the phone come 8am next day for your pelvic.

    Know the facts, do not be fazed by the BS here.

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